The Physical Chemistry Department at Fulmer Research Institute – a personal view. 1950 – 1980

by Ron Lewin – Member of the Physical Chemistry department

Photograph of the Main house showing the south facing windows of the Physical Chemistry Department ; the flower borders are in bloom and the croquet hoops are on the lawn (Z015)

Prologue

The Title of this paper can have different interpretations. As someone who worked at Fulmer from leaving school until 30 years on it means the experimental work, the staff, the buildings, the history, the friendship.

This paper centres on the experimental work of the Physical Chemistry Department but is surrounded by other facets to bring the Research work to life I joined Fulmer in 1950 in the early days when there were very few staff. Mr Liddiard our Managing Director lived next door to my Headmaster in Stoke Poges. In passing Mr Humpheryes mentioned he had three boys leaving school who were keen on science.

This conversation changed the rest of my life. We visited the laboratory which was a in a grand house and grounds in Stoke Poges. We met Mr Nicholas who was a spectroscopist and he kindly showed us how he could find what was in a sample of metal by making it into a spark. He demonstrated this by placing a sample of Lithium metal in the spectroscope and turned on the spark. Suddenly the whole room filled with mauve light.

I was overawed but knew one thing – I wanted to be a scientist!

The first fifteen years I worked in Physical Chemistry research and the second half to work with young people to inspire them to have a career in science.

Thank you to all those many friends who helped me to have such a wonderful life.

Ronald Lewin – April 2020

 

Table of Contents

  1. Prologue
  2. Introduction
  3. The Physical Chemistry Laboratories
  4. The Fulmer departmental structure
  5. The senior research staff in Physical Chemistry
  6. Physical Chemistry staff list
  7. Aluminium sub-halide distillation
  8. Thermodynamic measurements – Aluminium halide systems
  9. The transport of beryllium
  10. Intermetallic compounds in the Uranium – Bismuth system
  11. Thermochemical properties of metal compounds
  12. Calorimetry
  13. Emissivity of gases at high temperatures
  14. The production of hardware for space
  15. Tungsten deposition for rocket nozzle throats
  16. Boron nitride vessels
  17. Protecting gas turbine blade cooling passages against degradation
  18. Gold coatings on plastics
  19. Bibliography: Papers
  20. Bibliography: Patents
  21. Acknowledgements

Introduction

In 1945 Col W C Devereux[1] incorporated Almin Ltd, a group of companies manufacturing products from aluminium and magnesium alloys. His aim was to extend the use of light alloys to construction and consumer applications, based on the knowledge and expertise gained in the aircraft industry during the war.

Colonel Devereux purchased Holly Hill House, a large house with extensive grounds at Stoke Poges, as a permanent home for Fulmer Research Institute.

Dr Philipp Gross[2] moved from International Alloys Ltd (another Almin company) to become Fulmer’s Principal Scientist. He had had a distinguished career before the war as Professor of Physical Chemistry at Vienna University, but had been expelled from that post in 1938 on racial grounds and had taken refuge in England.

At International Alloys, Gross had recently patented a new route for producing aluminium from scrap or from ferro-aluminium so, at Fulmer, a Physical Chemistry Department in support of the Gross Process, was an important part of the plan.

In the event, Devereux sold the Gross process to the Canadian aluminium company Alcan who then sponsored Fulmer’s first research project.

The subject of this article is the establishment and development of Fulmer’s Physical Chemistry Department.

The Physical Chemistry Laboratories

It is true to say that a picture is better than a thousand words. This is certainly the case of the mansion which housed the Physical Chemistry Department from 1946.

Also in the mansion were housed other essential facilities including the Library , the Chemical Analysis Laboratory and General office. For this reason these and three other facilities and their proximity to the research staff are described below.

The architects and builders, believed to be Hartley’s of Wexham, should be congratulated on the conversion of a mansion to a research laboratory.

Except for aluminium framed glass doors and windows, little of the original brickwork and tessellated windows were altered.

The four interior research laboratories were cleared of their domestic use, the floors were given a bituminous covering and the surrounding walls used to bring gas, water and electricity to convenient positions.

The mansion faced due South and looked out to Windsor Castle about fifteen miles to the river Thames.

At the very far right behind the trees was the General Office. The aluminium façade of the Board Room, which was totally out of character but reflected that our major research work was borne out of the aluminium industry.

All the large bay windows, both up and down were the south facing windows of the Physical Chemistry laboratories.

The Fulmer departmental structure

Originally, seven departments were needed to meet the aims of Fulmer:

    • Physical metallurgy
    • Foundry, metal-working and ceramics
    • Physical chemistry, chemical thermodynamics and extraction metallurgy,
    • Physics, x-ray crystallography
    • Engineering and mechanical testing
    • Corrosion and electro deposition
    • Chemical and spectrographic analysis

The senior research staff in Physical Chemistry

As the Principal Scientist, Dr Gross oversaw all the work in the Physical Chemistry Department including the design and construction of a pilot plant for the catalytic distillation process and the thermodynamic studies required to support optimization of the reaction conditions. However, he always delegated experimental work to his staff. “I am a theoretician” he said. He marvelled at the innate practical skills of his physical chemistry team. He confessed his total lack of any practical ability and never learned to drive.

Other Senior staff in the Physical Chemistry Department included Leon Levi, Charles Campbell and Colin Hayman.

Physical Chemistry staff list

Nick Archer, Barry Bines, Jim Bingham, Roger Blachnic, Tony Bowry, Charles Campbell, Colin Hayman, Christine Chalk, John Christie, John Cullen, Geoff Curme, Dr Ehrlich, David Greene, Philipp Gross, Pam Green/Dear, Les Green, Domini Deegan, Ernest Dewing, Hans Joel, Peter Kent, Mike Lee, Ron Lewin, Leon Levi, Andy Linton, Stan Mroka, David Munro, John Perry, Dave Reynolds, Michael Stuart, Hillary Thornton, John Wardill and George Wilson.

Aluminium sub-halide distillation

The catalytic distillation process for producing Aluminium from an impure alloy or from scrap depended on the reaction

AlCl3 + 2 Al ⇌ 3 AlCl

The recycling process passed sublimed AlCl3 vapour at 200°C in a stream of an inert gas at one atmosphere over an impure alloy such as Al-Fe at 500°C when the reaction produced AlCl vapour. This vapour then flowed into a cooler area of the equipment where the reaction reversed. Aluminium metal condensed out and the AlCl3 returned for further recycling.

Aluminium distillation pilot plant (Z078-03)

Before the move to Holly Hill, laboratory experiments had shown that Dr Gross’s process was feasible. Now it was necessary to demonstrate its viability at pilot plant level. When the first new building was constructed at Fulmer, in addition to a foundry, a fully equipped workshop, and a heat treatment lab, a large area was provided for building the aluminium distillation pilot plant.

The pilot plant project was headed by Charles Campbell and Dr Ehrlich, a German chemical engineer, who had worked at the German rocket site at Peenemunde Army Research Centre during the second world war.

 

 

 

Thermodynamic measurements – Aluminium halide systems

Equipment for measuring the equilibrium constant in catalytic distillation reactions (Z078-04)

In parallel with the work on the pilot plant, laboratory experiments were continued in the new laboratories in the main house to obtain thermodynamic data relating to the aluminium chloride sub-halide process. The research work was headed up by the physical chemist Leon Levi.

The equipment for thermodynamic studies was often designed to transport gases through equipment made from Pyrex glass, ceramic tubes and furnaces in order to measure temperatures and pressures for the reaction process.

 

 

 

 

 

 

The research staff needed to make their own equipment, do their own glass blowing and learn general workshop skills. We were fortunate to be trained in glass blowing by Peter Kent. The passing out test was to make a Liebig condenser.

The transport of beryllium

The American Air Force gave us a contract to measure the transport of beryllium in beryllium dichloride vapour at 10-4 atmospheres and in the temperature range 1250 – 1500 K. The transport results from the reaction

Be(s) + BeCl2 (g) ⇌ 2 BeCl (g)

agreed with those extrapolated by previous researchers. However the interpretation of the transport experiments, could not be reconciled with the spectroscopy equilibrium values.

High temperature beryllium equilibrium apparatus (Z146)

Because of the toxicity of beryllium compounds, the beryllium experiments employing the effusion principle were carried out within a specially designed room. The experiments were difficult to construct and the main high temperature sections of the equipment were made from fused quartz.[3]

Intermetallic compounds in the Uranium – Bismuth system

The Atomic Energy Research Establishment was investigating passing liquid bismuth containing uranium intermetallic compounds around heat exchanger systems. The U-Bi phase diagram is very complex and metallurgical evidence was controversial. With our knowledge of thermochemical measurements we were asked to investigate parts of the uranium-bismuth phase diagram at 742°C. An effusion cell was designed to contain a range of U-Bi alloys made in situ.[4] An innovative method was used to measure heats and free energies of formation of the intermetallic compounds in the Uranium – Bismuth system. The results showed the existence of the intermetallic compound U3Bi5.

Thermochemical properties of metal compounds

The use of thermochemical equilibria for the appraisal of metallurgical processes such as aluminium metal production and refining was being increasingly recognised.

Dr Gross, when Professor of chemistry in Vienna, had known M H Rand who was now at AERE and O Kubaschewski who was now at NPL. They co-operated on some measurements through private communications and in the following book

The Thermochemical Properties of Uranium Compounds M. H. Rand and O. Kubaschewski – Publisher Oliver and Boyd

Calorimetry

By the early 50’s the American Space Programme had started in earnest and they were keen to use our expertise in thermochemistry. At this time Colin Hayman joined the physical chemistry staff.  He became interested in calorimetry and over many years headed a team of physical chemists who became very skilled in difficult measurements.

Calorimeter and associated apparatus (Z272)

The heats of formation of about fifty inorganic compounds were accurately determined and published. A particular area of expertise was halogen bomb calorimetry. We believe that at that time Fulmer was the only laboratory worldwide measuring heats of formation by direct combustion in fluorine gas.

Another approach used was solution calorimetry including solution in hot hydrofluoric acid.

For more details on Fulmer’s calorimetry work see a separate article by David Davies and Barry Bines. (V856)

Emissivity of gases at high temperatures

Apparatus for measuring emissivities of gasses (Z258)

At high temperatures radiation from gases plays an important part in heat transfer, and emissivity data are therefore important for the design of equipment. Measurements were made of total radiation from a flowing column of gas contained in a refractory tube which was open at both ends, the length of the gas column being defined by use of exactly balanced opposing streams of argon to form a “gas barrier” at each end of the tube.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The emitted radiation was measured by a sensitive thermopile in conjunction with an optical system containing a concave mirror as the image-forming element, with a diaphragm placed close to its focal plane to exclude radiation from the furnace components surrounding the gas. Provision was made for measuring total radiation from the gas with black body backgrounds at various temperatures. The entire apparatus was mounted on a water-cooled optical bench. Emissivities of gases were measured at temperatures up to 1000°C.

The production of hardware for space

As the British, European and American space programmes developed there was a shift in contracts towards the production of hardware for use in space where the expertise of the physical chemistry staff was needed

Projects moved from thermochemical measurements of metal halides and calorimetry into making items where a knowledge of physical chemistry and the associated specialised techniques was required.

Projects included the manufacture of metal coatings and free standing artefacts from materials including tungsten and molybdenum. Other coating processes were developed for nickel, rhenium, gold and boron nitride.

Tungsten deposition for rocket nozzle throats

One particular use was the coating of the outlet nozzle of rockets where the throat was made of dense graphite and coated with a few millimetres of high quality tungsten. The particular feature of the chemistry was passing tungsten hexafluoride vapour at 20°C over a heated surface at 500°C in a stream of hydrogen at the stoichiometric ratio to build up a coating of tungsten.

WF6 + 3H2 → W + 6HF

Although the laboratory had considerable experience of metal halide chemistry this was the first time we had been asked to use our chemical knowledge to produce physical objects.

Rocket Nozzle throat in centre of picture and small free standing tungsten vessels at the back (Z324-01)

Hitherto the outcome of our projects had taken the form of reports and papers.

This change was rather a culture shock. Usually in negotiating a contract one question we put to the sponsor was “Where will we publish the results?” Their response was “We are not concerned about where you publish the results; we just want you to make the hardware and we will fix it to a test rocket!”

One innovative product was the manufacture of small tungsten vessels. 1cm stainless steel bars were coated with tungsten in a rotating furnace and when coated and cooled, the steel and tungsten separated and the tungsten layer cut into two halves to produce two perfect tungsten vessels.

Boron nitride vessels

The compound boron nitride (BN) is isoelectronic with carbon and forms a similar crystallographic structure. Cubic boron nitride is as hard as diamond while hexagonal boron nitride is soft with a layered structure similar to graphite.

Chemical vapour deposition of BN results in a turbo-stratic structure in which the grains are all orientated with their hexagonal layers parallel to the plane of deposition. This results in very anisotropic properties such as thermal conductivity when compared to powder fabrication techniques such as hot isostatic pressing. When making crucibles for melting semiconductor materials, CVD has the great advantage that the thermal conductivity is high around the vessel wall and low across the thickness of the wall.

Boron nitride is fabricated using CVD by passing a gaseous boron compound and a gaseous nitrogen compound into a chamber at reduced pressure of 5 mm Hg and heated to 1900 – 1950°C containing a graphite mould shaped according to the required finished article.

The following reaction takes place at the heated surface

BF3 + NH3 → BN + 3HF

A range of boron nitride shapes made by CVD (Z286)

CVD plant used for large items of boron nitride (Z299)

Acknowledgements to Tony Bowry and Colin Hayman who developed this process.

Protecting gas turbine blade cooling passages against degradation

The development of coatings for the external and internal surfaces of turbine blades is a triumph of applied thermochemistry. It required the theoretical expertise and experience of Fulmer staff to the application of a very challenging problem. The coating process required immense throwing power since the internal cooling passages in a turbine blade were typically 2mm diameter and 150 mm long. What is very satisfying is to think that the original idea of Dr Gross over fifty years ago to produce aluminium using a sub halide is the basis of the deposition of aluminide coatings on jet-engine turbine blades.

Turbine blade of the type that was coated  (Z327-02)

Detail showing 2mm cooling channels (Z327-04)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Acknowledgement to Colin Hayman and Nick Archer

Gold coatings on plastics

To fulfil a defence requirement, an aqueous spray gold process was developed to form an adhered gold film onto FEP – fluorinated ethylene-propylene polymers as a means to render it electrically conductive.

The polymer surface had to be pre-treated by peening with glass beads to roughen the surface to provide a key for the gold to adhere and then it had to be chemically etched to render it hydrophilic so the gold spray could wet the entire surface. An effective etchant was sodium metal and naphthalene dissolved in acetone.

The gold solution was prepared by dissolving pure gold grain in aqua regia, (nitric acid and hydrochloric acid) and diluting to a working concentration. The reducing agent was similarly diluted to a working strength and the two solutions sprayed simultaneously onto the surface where they reacted to form a continuous gold film.[5] It was subsequently shown that decorative finishes in gold could also be produced on other plastics using appropriate pre-treatments.

Acknowledgement to Michael Stuart who perfected this process

 

Notes

[1]  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wallace_Charles_Devereux

[2]  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philipp_Gross

[3]  See paper G471 in the Bibliography

[4]  A novel method was used to make the reactants in finely divided form in situ; See paper G474 in the Bibliography

[5]  See paper G503 in the Bibliography

 

Bibliography: Papers

G437 Gross P, Hayman C, Stuart M C (1967), “Halogen Combustion Calorimetry of Refractory Compounds: The Heats of Formation of Boron Nitride and Boron Fluoride”, Proceedings of the British Ceramic Society, no 8, June 1967, pp 39-50
G438 Gross P, Hayman C, Levi D L (1955) Heats of Formation of Metallic Halides: Titanium Tetrachloride, Trans Faraday Soc vol 51 p 626-629
G440 P. Gross, C.Hayman, HEATS OF FORMATION OF LIGHT ELEMENT COMPOUNDS,1 SEPTEMBER 1960 – 31st DECEMBER 1969, R.163/38/March 1970. Fulmer Research Institute Ltd.,Stoke Poges, Buckinghamshire, England
G441 The heat of formation and transition temperature of solid lithium hexafluoroaluminate, P.D.Greene, P.Gross.and C.Hayman, Trans.Faraday Soc., 64, 633, (1968).
G442 The heat of formation of aluminium chloride, P Gross and C Hayman, Trans.Faraday Soc., 66, 565, (1970).
G443 Gross P, Hayman C, Levi D L (1954) , The Heats of Formation of Metal Halides: Aluminium fluoride, Trans Faraday Soc, No 377, vol 50, p 477-480
G444 Gross P, Hayman C, Joel H A (1968) ,The heat of formation of the fluoborates of lithium, sodium And potassium, Trans Faraday Soc vol 64 p 317-322
G445 Greene P G, Gross P, Hayman C (1968) The heat of formation and transition temperature of Solid lithium hexafluoroaluminate, , Trans.Faraday Soc., 64, 633
G446 Gross P, Hayman C (1970) ,The heat of formation of aluminium chloride, Trans Faraday Soc vol 66 p565
G447 Blachnik R O G, Gross P, Hayman C (1970) ,Enthalpies of formation of the carbides of aluminium and beryllium, Trans Faraday Soc 1970, 66, pp1058-1064
G448 P. Gross, C.Hayman, R H Lewin, G C Curme (1969) HEATS OF FORMATION OF LIGHT ELEMENT COMPOUNDS, 1 January 1960 – 31 March 1969 R.163/34/April 1969. Fulmer Research Institute Ltd.,Stoke Poges, Buckinghamshire, England
G449 Gross P, Hayman C et al (1959) XVIIth International Congress of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Munich, Inorganic Chemistry, A405, 90
G450 P. Gross, C. Hayman and D. L. Levi (1957) ,The heats of formation of metal halides. Zirconium tetrachloride, Trans. Faraday Soc., 1957,53, 1285-1288
G451 P. Gross, C. Hayman, D. L. Levi and G. L. Wilson (1960) , The heats of formation of metal halides. Niobium and tantalum pentachlorides , Trans Faraday Soc vol 56 p318-321
G452 Gross P, Hayman C (1964) Heats of formation of metal halides. Tetrachlorides of vanadium and hafnium , Trans Faraday Soc vol 60 p45-9
G453 Gross P, Hayman C, Greene P D, Bingham J T (1966) ,Heats of formation of α′-beryllium chloride and α- and β-beryllium nitride, Trans Faraday Soc vol 62 p2719-2724
G454 Gross P, Hayman C,Levi D L (1957) ,The heats of formation of metal halides. Titanium tetrabromide, with revised data on titanium tetrachloride, Trans Faraday Soc vol 53 p1601-5
G455 P. Gross, C. Hayman, D. L. Levi and G. L. Wilson (1962)Heats of formation of metal halides: pentabromides of niobium and tantalum , Trans Faraday Soc vol 58 p890-894
G456 Gross P, Hayman C, Bingham J T (1966) ,Heats of formation of germanium tetrafluoride and of the germanium dioxides, Trans Faraday Soc vol 62 p2388-2394
G457 Gross P, Hayman C, Levi D L (1953) ,Trans Faraday Soc vol 50 p477
G458 Restall, J E (1984), DEVELOPMENT OF COATINGS FOR THE PROTECTION OF GAS TURBINE BLADES AGAINST HIGH TEMPERATURE OXIDATION AND CORROSION, Royal Aircraft Establishment Pyestock, Farnborough, Hants
G460 Hayman C (1967) . Proceedings of Thermodynamic-Symposium, K. Schafer (Ed) paper I-7, Heidelberg, 1967
G464 Gross P, Campbell C S, Kent P J C, Levi D L,l (1948) On some equilibria involving aluminium monohalides, Discussions of the Faraday Society, Vol 4, pp206-215
G465 Gross P, Warrington Mrs M (1948), The reduction of zinc sulphide by iron under reduced pressure, Discussions of the Faraday Society, Vol 4, pp215-217
G466 GROSS. P. ,Sub-Halide Distillation of Aluminium, Presented to the Aluminium Congress, June 1954.
G469 P. Gross and G. L. Wilson (1970) Composition and heat of combination of a double oxide of iron and sodium, J. Chem. Soc. A, 1970, 1913-1916
G470 Gross P, Hayman C and Stuart M C (1969) Heat of formation of boron phosphide , Trans. Faraday Soc., 65, 2628-2632
G471 P. Gross and R. H. Lewin (1973), Transport of beryllium in beryllium dichloride vapour, Faraday Symp. Chem. Soc., 1973,8, 158-164
G472 P. Gross, C. Hayman and S. Mwroka (1969), Heat of formation of silicon tetrachloride , Trans. Faraday Soc., 1969,65, 2856-2859
G473 P. Gross and C. Hayman (1970), Enthalpy of formation of aluminium chloride, Trans. Faraday Soc., 1970,66, 30-32
G474 Gross, P; Levi, D L; Lewin, R H (1959), “Activities in Uranium-Bismuth Alloys and the Free Energies of Uranium-Bismuth Compounds”, The Physical Chemistry of Metallic Solutions and Intermetallic Compounds, 2, HMSO, London
G502 Gross P and Stuart M C (1971) On the Equilibrium Pressure of Cuprous Chloride in the Segregation Reaction, Metallurgical Chemistry – Proceedings of a symposium held at Brunel University and at the National Physical Laboratory, London HMSO 1972, SBN 11
G503 Stuart M C (1979) The Development of a Gold-Based Activator for AutoCatalytic Plating, Gold
Bulletin, Volume 12, issue 2,pp 58-61

 

Bibliography: Patents

P6025 US2470306 (A) 17/05/1949 Process for the production and refining of metals Philipp Gross
P6026 US2470305 (A) 17/05/1949 Process for the production and refining of aluminium Philipp Gross
P6027  FI23930 (A) 10/09/1949 Destillationsförfarande för framställning eller raffinering av metaller  Philipp Gross
P6028 CA462076 (A)  27/12/1949 PRODUCING OR REFINING METALS Gross Philipp
P6029 CA462075 (A) 27/12/1949  PRODUCTION OR REFINING OF ALUMINIUM  Gross Philipp
P6030 DE816615 (C)  11/10/1951 Futterzerkleinerungsmaschine Gross Philipp
P6031  DE816774 (C) 11/10/1951  Schneidwerk fuer Haeckselmaschinen  Gross Philipp
P6032 DE816924 (C)  15/10/1951 Maschine zum Zerkleinern von Viehfutter Gross Philipp
P6033  DE828191 (C) 17/01/1952  Schrotmuehle mit abgefederter Laeuferwelle  Gross Philipp
P6049 DE830113C  31/01/1952 A process for the production and purification of aluminium Dr Philip Gross
P1002  GB666869 (A) 20/02/1952  Improvements relating to the distillation of metals  Dr Philip Gross
P6048 DE829801C  06/03/1952 A method for distilling metals Dr Philip Gross
P6034 DE831606 (C) 15/04/1952 Verfahren zur Herstellung oder Reinigung von Metallen Gross Dr Philipp
P6035 US2607675 (A) 19/08/1952 Distillation of metals Philipp Gross
P6036  DE850532 (C)  25/09/1952  Trommel zur Feinzerkleinerung von Rueben u. dgl. Gross Philipp 
P6037 DE851143 (C)  02/10/1952  Maschine zum Zerkleinern von Rueben und anderem Viehfutter Gross Philipp
P6038 DE851142 (C) 02/10/1952 Futterzerkleinerungsmaschine Gross Philipp
P6039 DE861226 (C) 29/12/1952 Pneumatische Foerderanlage, insbesondere zum Foerdern von nassem Gut Gross Philipp
Kleiber Kurt
P6040 DE861225 (C) 29/12/1952 Pneumatische Foerderanlage mit Zerkleinerungsmaschine, insbesondere zum Foerdern von nassem Gut Gross Philipp
Kleiber Kurt
P1011 GB719058 (A) 24/11/1954 Improvements in the production of aluminium from aluminium alloys
P1012 GB719551 (A) 01/12/1954 Production and purification of titanium
P1013 GB723880 (A) 16/02/1955 Production and purification of titanium
P1014 GB723879 (A) 16/02/1955 Production and purification of titanium
P5002 US2718464 (A) 20/09/1955 Production and purification of titanium Philipp Gross
Levi David Leon
P5004 CA527758 (A) 17/07/1956 DISTILLATION OF METALS Gross Philipp
P1018 US2760857 (A) 28/08/1956 Production and purification of titanium Philipp Gross
David Leon Levi
P1019 US2764480 (A) 25/09/1956 Production and purification of titanium Philipp Gross
David Leon Levi
P1099 DE950092 (C) 04/10/1956 Production and purification of titanium Philipp Gross
David Leon Levi
P1100 DE950758 (C) 18/10/1956 Production and purification of titanium Philipp Gross
David Leon Levi
P1022 US2785973 (A) 19/03/1957 Production and purification of titanium Philipp Gross
David Leon Levi
P1023 CA542182 (A) 11/06/1957 Production and purification of titanium Philipp Gross
David Leon Levi
P1024 CA542181 (A) 11/06/1957 Production and purification of titanium Philipp Gross
David Leon Levi
P6041 DE1747626 (U) 27/06/1957  ZAPFWELLENANTRIEBSVORRICHTUNG FUER GESPANNBINDEMAEHER. Gross Philipp
P6042 DE1747635 (U) 27/06/1957 VIEHTRAENKE MIT DURCH DAS VIEH SELBSTBETAETIGTER PUMPE. Gross Philipp
P1027 CA549299 (A) 26/11/1957  Production and purification of titanium  Gross Philipp
Levi David L
P1028 CA549298 (A) 26/11/1957 Production and purification of titanium Gross Philipp
Levi David L
P6043 DE1791252 (U) 02/07/1959  ERDUNGSSTAB FUER ELEKTRISCHE WEIDEZAEUNE.  Gross Philipp
P6044 DE1810563 (U) 28/04/1960 SELBSTTRAENKENDE WEIDEPUMPE Gross Philipp
P1031 GB912829 (A) 12/12/1962 Improvements relating to the bonding together of plastics materials Kent Peter John Charles
Lewin Ronald Harvey
P1101 DE976700 (C) 05/03/1964 Verfahren zur Gewinnung von Aluminium Gross Philipp
Dewing Ernest William
IT950934 (B) 20/06/1973 FORMAZIONE DI CARBURI DI TUNGSTENO E DI MOLIBDENO Lewin R H
Cecil Hayman
P1054 DE2323652 (A1) 29/11/1973 Chemical deposition of titanium compound(s) – with carbon and/or nitrogen onto metallic or non-metallic substrates Hayman Cecil
P1069  SE405592 (B)
SE7500227 (L)
18/12/1978 Wolfram- und Molybdaencarbide Lewin R H
Hayman C
P6045 US4156042 A 22/05/1979 Coating articles having fine bores or narrow cavities in a pack-cementation process Cecil Hayman
James E. Restall
P6046 GB1549845A 08/08/1979 Diffusion coating of metal or other articles Cecil Hayman
James E. Restall

 

Acknowledgements

Thanks are due to David Davies for compiling the Bibliography and to Brian Tranter for producing the formatted article.